Correct. Currently you're holding them in the cloud twice, in iCloud and in the Adobe cloud.
For ones outside of Lr (so if they are on the camera roll, also the iCloud ones) then yes.
I assume you mean JPG not PDF. The HEIC one(s) will always have additional data, the JPG are processed ones...
My apologies, I only looked at one (the .lrtemplate one) not the second which is indeed the converted xmp.
However, in the xmp, there are no lines for temperature, tint or exposure so when you apply them they will stay as they are. I also notice the ACR version is being set to 6.7...
It's hard to tell you the lines to delete if it isn't a representative xmp file; it's easy (as you may appreciate) to simply delete the color, tint, exposure from the xmp; if you sis an adjustment to HSL then that too can be removed. But you said the color temperature had been...
1. There are no lines for color temp, tint or exposure in the profile, so they won't be affected when you apply them (as an example, for Exposure there would be an entry like 'Exposure2012="0.25"'
2. These are the old lrtemplate files not the converted xmp files?
If you created layers in Ps then it needs to know the type of file and location to save it in. If you didn't, then it'll either save as the format you specified in Preferences (if it's a raw file) or obey the rules you specified when using Edit In,
Sounds right to me. A solution (even if it does mean a bit of work!)
You can select multiple files and Get Info, although you still have to change them individually it opens all the Info boxes at once.
Sounds like you found the issue then. Change the permissions on one, try it, I believe it'll be fine. It'd be interesting to know where in the chain it happened (so the permissions on the original SD card, does that mean there's an SD card corruption? I'd low level format it anyway!)